Urban Delta Scapes

Posted: June 6th, 2019 | Author: A.D. | Filed under: ANTHROPOLOGIE — réflexions croisées sur un monde qui bouge | No Comments »

at CINETIC, 2nd of June 2019
Str Tudor Arghezi 3B, Sect 2, București

‘Urban Delta Scapes’ is a multimedia performance in which the sounds and images from the Văcărești Delta interact with live music, animated visuals and a choreographic act of gestures and movement.

The Delta is for us, an inspiration for a creative collective composed of motion graphic designers, musicians, dancers and researchers.

It is also a way of narrating an absolute victory of the nature over the city.


Paléograph’ 2019

Posted: March 21st, 2019 | Author: A.D. | Filed under: ANTHROPOLOGIE — réflexions croisées sur un monde qui bouge | No Comments »

Description de l’œuvre

Nous sommes à la recherche de quelque chose de primitif, d’une mémoire antérieure à notre naissance, d’une évidence que chacun de nous porte en lui, d’un patrimoine qui vit et se transforme à travers les âges — les gestes des premiers hommes.

Anciennes de près de 30 000 ans, les peintures et gravures des grottes de Saulges disent quelque chose de notre humanité. Mais comment étaient-elles tracées, et quelle pouvait-être leur fonction ?

Aux frontières de la recherche entre arts, sciences et technologie, l’œuvre Paleograph’ invite à la découverte de l’art pariétal.

En 2019, l’œuvre propose une expérience de réalité virtuelle mettant en scène le corps du visiteur dans un espace où il n’est plus simple spectateur mais se trouve immergé dans un univers qu’il façonne à chacun de ses gestes.

En 2020, l’œuvre évolue pour proposer un écran interactif permettant au spectateur d’explorer de nouvelles scènes avec des représentations de l’art paléolithique aux œuvres contemporaines.

la chouette

Historique de l’œuvre

Paleograph’ est le fruit d’une recherche expérimentale, tant scientifique qu’artistique, menée par la compagnie Little Heart Movement depuis 2015.

Différentes disciplines s’y rencontrent : anthropologie, chorégraphie, graffiti, performance, ingénierie, arts numériques, photographie et musique.

La pièce prit tout d’abord la forme d’une recherche chorégraphique, Rock Art Rocks Me, sponsorisée par Stereolux et la ville de Nantes, avant d’être invitée au Centre Barbara Fleury Goutte d’Or à Paris, puis à la Haute École des Arts de Zurich (ZHdK).

Le processus itératif s’implante aujourd’hui au musée des Grottes de Saulges pour inviter le public à une rencontre sensorielle avec l’art pariétal.

La traduction de ces œuvres ancestrales par l’intermédiaire des arts numériques renouvelle la découverte des images et des gestes de nos ancêtres.

Immersive Lab ZHdK

Déroulé de l’expérience

Au moment où vous mettez le casque, vous vous retrouvez dans un espace vide, qui ressemble étrangement à la salle du musée où vous étiez tout à l’heure. Elle en a les mêmes proportions et pourtant, les fenêtres ont disparu.

Une main négative apparaît. Lorsque vous la touchez, vous pénétrez dans un autre espace, celui de la grotte.

Vous êtes à présent dans la grotte. Observez ses cavités, déplacez-vous et laissez-vous surprendre par ses sonorités.

Un écran s’offre à vous. Grâce aux gestes de vos mains, vous êtes invité à réaliser une grande fresque de peinture lumineuse.

Le toucher vous permet ensuite de faire apparaître des peintures. Un ours, un poisson, un mammouth, un cheval… Quelles seront les formes dissimulées que vos gestes feront apparaître ?

Une fois les formes animales découvertes, l’espace se transforme à nouveau. Au-dessus de votre tête, le ciel étoilé. Face à vous, un mobile à taille humaine. Son mouvement rappelle étrangement celui d’un manège. Le toucher de chaque cheval vous permet de composer un jeu musical.

La scène finit par disparaître pour vous ramener dans la salle initiale.

Détails sur l’installation

L’oeuvre Paléograph’ se compose de cinq éléments :

L’Effet Calder
Anne Dubos & Jasch
Mobile : impression 3D, tiges d’acier, fil de pêche, ventilateur USB.
Impression 3D à partir des relevés archéologiques de Romain Pigeaud (grottes de Saulges). Le mobile s’inspire de l’œuvre d’Alexander Calder.

Résonances
Jasch & Anne Dubos
Paysages sonores : Enregistrements environnementaux, voix, instruments, composition multicanal.

D’après plusieurs collectes d’ambiances sonores locales (forêt de Mayenne, grotte Margaux, rives de l’Erve) les artistes ont conçu l’œuvre en résonance à l’expérience immersive. Les sons de Résonances répondent à ceux de Paléograph’

Paléograph’
Compagnie Little Heart Movement
Installation pour casque de réalité virtuelle : HTC vive, leap motion, unity, max MSP, photographie, photogrammétrie, dessin, graphisme interactif.

#Traces 1, 2, 3
Vincent Dubos
Peinture : acrylique et bombe aérosol sur toile. 260 cm X 200 cm, 250 cm x 200 cm, 250 cm x 200 cm.

The Mirror of Gesture
Compagnie Little Heart Movement
Vidéo : écran TFT, raspberrypi
Vincent est artiste peintre. Depuis près de 30 ans, il pratique l’art du graffiti. Il a été invité au sein de l’installation Paléograph’ à réaliser une performance plastique, documentée et restituée sous forme de vidéo. Telle une manifestation contemporaine de l’art pariétal, The Mirror of Gesture permet d’envisager le geste de peinture comme un art vivant.

Paléograph’ – 2019
une installation immersive de la compagnie Little Heart Movement
* Œuvre de commande pour le musée de Préhistoire & Grottes de Saulges,
équipement patrimonial de la Communauté de Communes des Coëvrons, avec le soutien de la région des Pays de la Loire.

Crédits

Artiste auteur : Anne Dubos
Images virtuelles et technologie : Anne Dubos & Jasch
Musique : Jasch & Anne Dubos
Peinture : Vincent Dubos
Lumière : Emmanuel Valette
Scénographie : Floriane Pic
Code et développement logiciel : Jasch & Lisa Izzouzi
Direction artistique : Anne Dubos
Direction technique : Jan Schacher
Conseil : Yves Labbas & Walter Paice
Relevés Archéologiques : L’Abbé Breuil & Romain Pigeaud
Photogrammétrie : Hervé Paitier, Passé Simple, Anagram
Remerciements du cœur : Judith Guez, Jean-François Jégo, Naun, Martin Lambert, Boris Letessier, toute l’équipe Rock Art Rocks Me et la ville de Nantes.
Production : Little Heart Movement


Des Gestes Augmentés

Posted: April 26th, 2018 | Author: A.D. | Filed under: ANTHROPOLOGIE — réflexions croisées sur un monde qui bouge, PERFORMANCE — théories et pratiques | No Comments »

Certains algorithmes permettent la prédiction et la transformation de pratiques de tous types (conduite automobile, traffic usager, achat en ligne). L’usage des technologie permet également d’observer l’évolution de pratiques sous forme de motifs (au sens de patterns : Bateson, 1983).
Tandis que les appareils mobiles intègrent aujourd’hui de puissantes capacités de détection de mouvement (accéléromètres, gyroscope, boussoles), de plus larges spectres d’utilisations que ceux proposés et programmés par l’industrie (Prévieux, 2006) pourraient être imaginés, conçus et mis en œuvre.
L’objectif des gestes augmentés est de repousser les limites de la réflexion actuelle sur la technologie informatique des objets connectés, des smartphones au ‘cloud computing’. Cela comprend l’expérimentation de divers types d’interactions homme-machine et la conception de nouveaux gestes et mouvements (Dubos et al., 2017).
Composé d’ateliers de recherche expérimentale, fondé sur une pratique trans-disciplinaire, le projet regroupe plusieurs partenaires dont : Hortense Kack, danseuse de la compagnie Little Heart Movement, Frédéric Bevilacqua, directeur de l’ISMM de l’IRCAM à Paris et Jan Schacher chercheur à la Haute Ecole des Arts de Zurich.
Lors de ma présentation au CRESSON, le 3 Mai prochain, je vais aborder deux notions : celle soundscape (Schafer, 1969) et celle de performance augmentée. Comment imaginer « jouer » des soundscapes à partir de la technologie mobile ? ou comment les dispositifs technologiques envisagés à l’échelle urbaine peuvent-ils donner accès à de nouveaux types d’espaces re-médiés (Schnell, 2013)
Pour ce qui est de la relation à l’anthropologie des techniques du corps (Mauss, 1934), il s’agit de chercher une manière de se jouer (Hamayon, 2012) de la technologie ; la génération de nouveaux gestes permettant de découvrir les dispositifs, à loeuvre dans larchitecture des corps et des espaces contemporains (Agamben, 2007).

Hortense Kack, Little Heart Movement, Des Gestes Augmentés - 2018 - Crédit photo : Emmanuel Valette

Hortense Kack, Little Heart Movement, Des Gestes Augmentés - 2018 Crédit photo : Emmanuel Valette

Soundfield - Jan Schacher & Anne Dubos - 2018


LEMO.N – Learning by Moving

Posted: April 12th, 2018 | Author: A.D. | Filed under: ANTHROPOLOGIE — réflexions croisées sur un monde qui bouge | No Comments »

Résumé

The goal of LEMO.N (learning by moving network) is to build shared interdisciplinary knowledge on body movement and its interaction with various technologies. From a series of workshops performed in collaboration with CRI, it will challenge the limits of the current thinking on gesture design and computer technology for smart objects.This knowledge will be gathered on the form of a website, and possible future resources, that will be useful for CRI researchers and students and to foster future collaborations and events (such as workshops, gamejams, lab-days, hackathons, etc). LEMO.N’s aim is to experiment with various types of human-machine interactions and to design new kinds of gestures for digital apparatus, from smartphones to cloud computing.

Background

While mobile devices now incorporate powerful motion detection capabilities (accelerometers, gyroscopes, compasses), a broader spectrum of uses than those proposed and programmed by tech-industries could be imagined, designed and implemented (Dubos et al., 2017).Since the past two years, I have been working on the question of gesture design and augmented gestures in a large networks (CRI / IRCAM / ENSCI-Les Ateliers / IIT Bombay / Maker’s Asylum Bombay).Shared methodologies for designing and sharing gestures are generally lacking, because this requires a transdisciplinary approach. To collect and assemble a database on learning by moving and gesture design will enable new models of thinking, teaching and researching. Hypothesis The anthropology of gesture and the analysis of body techniques provides us with a strong basis for conceiving augmented gestures. But how to generate new kinds of collective knowledge augmented by technology ? And how to generate new gestures, discover new fittings for smart devices ? My research question looks for a way to document research on learning by moving.

Methods

The aim of the LEMO.N project is to edit, label and implement resources in order to create an open repository of materials for interdisciplinary research.It will be articulated in 4 phases:1. Analyzing existing material gathered during recent workshops,2. Design indexes and mind maps,3. design a website for multimedia resources,4. Disseminate the gathered information through articles and workshops and lab-days. Impact LEMO.N will bring together people working in various disciplines and research activities. It will enhance the emerging scientific field on movement and computing. It will further expand it, linking it with various fields such as education, pedagogy, health care and wellbeing, as well as  human and social sciences.It will provide a common resource platform for researchers, designers, engineers and students who would need to develop projects on movements, such as gesture-based interactive systems.By focusing on possible differences in cultures and contexts, LEMO.N might affect the appropriation of shared gestural interaction paradigms. A website will document all the workshops, technologies, improvements, contributions and possibilities done in gesture design. Two publications are planned. New research and pedagogical projects will profit from these resources. This growing network will impact both: researchers and students in this new field.

Keywords

learning, transdisciplinarity, technology, innovation, education

LEMO.N on Youtube : https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFE1Wly_7OM__1EYaaPbD_-DDqTNh2w2l


La Gestothèque

Posted: March 7th, 2018 | Author: A.D. | Filed under: ANTHROPOLOGIE — réflexions croisées sur un monde qui bouge | No Comments »

La_Gestotheque_carte_du_MOOC

Les archives du geste interrogent autant les techniques du corps que l’usage des technologies.Elles tendent à démontrer que les gestes ne sont pas de l’ordre du langage. De la trace des mains négatives sur la paroi des grottes ornées à la technique gestuelle des théâtres indiens, jusqu’aux usages de la technologie mobile, la question de l’enregistrement du geste et de sa passation sera ici explorée : qu’est-ce qu’un geste ? Et comment le connaître, le décrire ou le définir ?

Situé à la jonction de l’apparition du phénomène, de la mémoire, de la connaissance et de l’image, le geste est témoin d’une intention. Ma recherche tend à formaliser la vie des gestes. À travers le projet de La Gestothèque, je me propose d’étudier la notion de dispositif comme cadre conceptuel de la recherche, au sein d’un espace-temps que je nomme « tiers gestural ».

La Gestothèque est avant tout un outil conceptuel. Son élaboration correspond à la volonté de cartographier un domaine en émergence, qui s’étend de l’analyse des techniques du corps à leur pratique, par un panel d’experts variants de danseurs, chanteurs, compositeurs, physiciens, anthropologues, ethnologues, sociologues, technologues, ingénieurs, biomécaniciens, etc.

Elle se compoe de plusieurs branches d’activités :
- un cours, donné à l’ENSCI-Les ateliers, dans le cadre du dispositif Phénorama
- un séminaire de recherche : https://blog.ensci.com/phenorama/seminaire-de-recherche/
- des journées d’études : “Les journées du geste” dont deux éditions ont déjà été reçues à Stereolux, à Nantes
En 2017 : https://www.stereolux.org/agenda/journees-du-geste-20
En 2014 : https://www.stereolux.org/blog/journees-d-etude-sur-le-geste-main-mouvement-et-emotion
- un MOOC (Massive Open Online Course), produit par la Mooc Factory, du CRI
- un cours, dans le Master AIMove, aux Mines Paris-Tech : http://aimove.eu
- des résidences de recherche, accompagnées par Le Labo de Stereolux, l’INREV de l’Université de Paris 8, ou l’IRCAM

Ce travail s’accompagne également de l’enregistrement de catalogue de gestes techniques sous plusieurs formes et supports (motion capture, tracking, photographie, croquis, vidéo, etc.).


Les Mains Négatives

Posted: January 8th, 2018 | Author: A.D. | Filed under: ANTHROPOLOGIE — réflexions croisées sur un monde qui bouge | Comments Off

The exploratory research project ‘Les Mains Négatives’ serves as an experimental apparatus for observation and analysis of gestures in relation to a poetic agency made out of images and sounds. It thus becomes both a carrier and a witness to the traces of a cosmography.

The negative hands appear on prehistoric cave-walls, they are alive in aboriginal culture, and also figure in a transposed manner in graffiti and digital arts. Within the interactive media-space of the Immersive Lab the painting gesture is re-performed as a living experience. Visitors are exposed to an archive, which is manifested in the digital forms of a fluid iconology. The apparatus enables complex structures to become visible and accessible to the interpretation through gesture interaction.

As an echo to Aby Warburg’s ‘Mnemosyne’, the exploratory actions of the artist-researchers and the public, engender a re-mediation of the archives. In a cyclical process of investigation, interpretation, and construction, the various materials migrate between the digital and the physical bodies. How can a technological apparatus manifest the performance of a gesture that is 40’000 years old, through an iconological process?

Within the interactive and immersive configuration of the apparatus, the ontological state of the archives is augmented with an altered epistemic plane. The materiality of the archived objects, as well as the fluidity provided by the interactions contribute to the performance of meaning. This ‘mise-en-oeuvre’ generates an artistic object, whose primary basis is knowledge production through aesthetic experience.

Les Mains Negatives

Les Mains Negatives


Faites vos jeux !

Posted: June 13th, 2017 | Author: A.D. | Filed under: ANTHROPOLOGIE — réflexions croisées sur un monde qui bouge, PERFORMANCE — théories et pratiques | No Comments »

Le Forumidable est un forum qui a lieu tous les ans (depuis 3 ans). Il a pour but de promouvoir la recherche en arts. De faire en sorte que les designers trouvent une reconnaissance à leur pratique de recherche. Ouvert à tous, étudiants des écoles d’art, de design et d’architecture, artistes, designers, architectes, etc. Il est organisé par Armand Béhar et Antonella Tufano.

Espace de travail, d’écoute, de discussion, de production, le forum propose de questionner les pratiques actuelles de la recherche par la création en arts, en architecture et en design : Comment fonctionne la recherche par la création ?

Afin d’observer cette pensée opératoire à l’oeuvre sont invités des chercheurs-artistes de tous horizons. Tentatives de toucher, d’esquisser, de comprendre que ce qui surgit-là pourrait ouvrir des nouveaux territoires de connaissances. En Mai 2016, ma proposition était la suivante :

Faites-vos jeux !

A la manière d’Aby Warburg, composez une image afin d’inventer une carte, concevoir un tableau, composer une image, tracer un diagramme, générer un collage. Pendant les deux jours de conférence du Forumidable, travaillez les traces de la mémoire. Actualisez l’Atlas Mnémosyne. Jouez vous des images et composez les vôtres en réponse aux mots, concepts, sonorités échappés de la conférence voisine

Warburg dans sa bibliothèque

Voici la proposition initiale: Il s’agit d’une performance collective. Oeuvre de manipulation des images de mon travail d’enquête, elle s’initie à partir des 254 images posées sur a table devant qui voudra bien s’y rallier.

Ces photographies représentent dix années de recherche par l’image. Dix années de souvenirs, de flânerie, de voyage sont proposées comme matériau brut. Je les ai déposées sur la table de l’atelier. J’attends qu’un passant vienne s’en emparer.
Je propose à chacun d’arranger les cartes comme il le souhaite ou alors, comme il l’entend. La table se trouve installée au fond de la salle Charlotte Perriand, au dernier étage du bâtiment. La fenêtre est ouverte et donne sur la terrasse. Par delà les toîts, les nuages. Au centre de la salle se donne la conférence.

Trois tables de travail sont installées derrière lesquelles un écran est descendu pour montrer des images, depuis laquelle on entend les invités du forum s’exprimer.

Chorégraphie d’idées, de mots et d’images, à l’instar de l’Atlas Mnémosyne, les dix années de travail ethnographique, de balancement entre l’Inde et la France où le double de la description n’est autre que l’incertitude, se jouent dans tous les sens afin de se concrétiser d’une manière qui plait au joueur, au passant.

Lors de sa conférence, in-situ, Patrick Bouchain dit : « L’acte est possible car il est enjoué ». Au-delà de toute théorie de l’agency, l’acteur (celui de mon enquête) est agent des théâtres : c’est son corps qui compose les gestes, les signes, les sonorités. C’est ici la capacité de jeu à agir dont il est question. J’invite alors le passant, là présent, à se jouer des images et à les arranger dans le sens qui lui conviendra.

Au-delà de la théorie des jeux il y a le sens des signes, du motif. Et la communication de tous ces kinèmes, extraits, fragments, images clés dans langages du corps qui font de nous ce que nous sommes, des êtres humains.

Le jeu proposé ici consiste en la contribution du passant à se faire passeur de sens. Celui qui s’avance pour un nouveau type de travail à la table est interrogé sur sa capacité d’éditeur. Telle une chirographie, il se fera maître d’une partition de gestes.

Et sur les vidéos d’arrangement des images on lit, le choix, l’arrêt, le plaisir, l’immobilisation, la satisfaction, le sentiment de donner du sens…

La table est une invitation à une nouvelle espèce travail. Elle se veut être un relais aux espaces machiniques. Elle est le lieu d’une répétition: prendre une image parmi la collection, lui trouver des correspondantes, aligner sa sélection.

Chacun est libre de refaire le geste de son prédécesseur ou d’en inventer de nouveaux. Le travail d’édition se poursuit ensuite sur l’ordinateur : l’édition numérique de la planche sera imprimée au traceur.

ADNwomenBleu Sepia


Eleven

Posted: December 26th, 2015 | Author: A.D. | Filed under: ANTHROPOLOGIE — réflexions croisées sur un monde qui bouge, PERFORMANCE — théories et pratiques | No Comments »

Thrissur School of Drama

Eleven est une pièce en kit. L’écriture dramaturgique fonctionne sur le mode du « work in process ». Elle se travaille étape par étape, tout au long du cheminement de la compagnie. À partir de l’analyse des modalités de transmission des gestes de Kathakaḷi, l’auteure interroge la manière dont les techniques du corps traditionnelles évoluent : qu’arrive-t-il à la forme du geste lorsqu’il est transmis d’un corps à l’autre : de celui d’un danseur contemporain à un acteur amateur ? Et comment cartographier son changement dans l’espace et le temps ? Liée à un laboratoire du geste itinérant, la pièce met en scène l’hypothèse d’une nécessaire mobilité dans la conception de l’architecture des administrations patrimoniales.

À partir des techniques de jeux décrites dans le Natyashastra, le célèbre traité de théâtre de l’Inde ancienne, neuf acteurs incarnent les navarasa : sringara, (l’amoureux), hasya (le comique) karuna (le pathétique), raudra (le furieux), vira (l’héroïque), bhayanaka (le terrible), bibhatsa (l’odieux), adbhuta (le merveilleux), santa (l’apaisé). Une gestuelle singulière fonde leur caractère. Deux autres acteurs, un enfant et un vieillard sont les personnages narrateurs. Dans un coin de la scène, à jardin, un petit écran de télévision projette des images d’actualité. On dirait un journal d’information. Il montre les aléas du devenir humain.

L’enjeu d’Eleven, est de travailler sur deux extrémités de la pratique théâtrale, des codes traditionnels du Kathakali à l’improvisation collective. Pour cela nous avons imaginé onze ateliers, pour onze compagnies hôtes. Laboratoire pour les arts vivants, la pièce est jouée et co-écrite sur le principe d’improvisation collective.Chacun des ateliers invite onze acteurs (neuf navarasi et deux narrateurs). Le processus de création est à chaque fois filmé. Chaque film marque une étape graphique de l’histoire de la pièce.

Tel un laboratoire du geste itinérant entre l’Inde et la France, la pièce invite à concevoir un dispositif jeu et de captation des émotions.


About Rasaesthetics,

Posted: April 19th, 2015 | Author: A.D. | Filed under: ANTHROPOLOGIE — réflexions croisées sur un monde qui bouge, INTERVIEWS — la parole donnée, PERFORMANCE — théories et pratiques | No Comments »

An interview with Richard Schechner

AD: My first question would be: why did you write Rasaesthetics? It has been published in 2001 in TDR, but I think you wrote that before, did you?

RS: No. I wrote it in 2001. I wrote it after my encounter with Mickael Gerson, the man who made the enteric nervous system famous. Now, how I found him, I do not remember. I mean, he wrote this book The Second Brain, but I don’t remember how I met him.
But once I met him and I read that book and I saw that there was this physiological basis for the rasic experience. Now, the first time I read the Natyashastra, this is the really beginning. I was in Cheruthuruthy and it was 1976, during the rainy season… you know all this?

AD: You came to let me know once, but please, tell it again, it is interesting…

RS: So, it was July 1976 and I have been in India at that point but it was only my second visit, but I have been in there from March because we brought Mother Courage and her Children with the Performance Group, and they all went back. And I was in Cheruthuruthy and in order to get a massage, I was the oldest person and they said they would not do the full massage, I took the basic Kathakali training …
Now, I did this training a little training in No drama. I did training in things I cannot master. Yoga I can master, but, because I feel by taking the thing in your own body, can really help you to understand and it is not a question at that point of mastering. When you are very young you can master these things, but let us say, you can still experience it as “physical metaphor”: you can feel it and when somebody is standing on you and bending you out, it gives you another sense of your body….
Anyway, as I was doing that, they were constantly talking about rasa and bhava and I did not really understand what they were talking about. So I decided that during the off-time, I was during this training 3 hours a day, but during the rest, it was raining, I was sitting and I would read the Natyashastra, and I would also read about the Natyashastra. Especially Christopher Byrsky, you know this reference? He is a Poland schola, and I think he wrote The Concept of Indian Ancient Theatre, I believe it is the title. I read also Pramod Cale, an Indian scholar. His book is called The Theatric Universe. It is all about rasa.
So I have read that. I have read these books. And I really got into the notion of rasa as a physical thing about flavor. About rasa, as a visceral experience, in other words: flavor and smell can only be experienced if you take something in the body. I can see the moon and the stars millions and millions miles away and I can hear you a long way but I can only touch you at the length of my hand and I can only literally get inside of you with my tongue or my penis whatever, or I can only lick you, if you are really close to me. So to me these touch and taste are very primary emotions, more primary than sight and hearing, in other words.
I can imagine, even it is a hard life, living without seeing and hearing. But I cannot imagine living without being able to taste. That is almost impossible. We would stop eating. We would die. So it struck me at that point in 1971, so 30 years before Rasaesthetics, that the western notion of theatre, the theatron theory is all about the eyes, and possibly because Athens is clear, you can see far, in its mountains and all. And the Indian theatre is all about the flavor and possibly because there is so much of jungle that you can’t see, it does not give you theses visions only in the mountains. Anyway I don’t know that, but I was just swept away with that idea that rasaesthetics would be really intimate.
Because I have already done Dyonisius in 69 I already have done theatre where people touch and taste each other and I already have done these workshops and I have already been affected by Grotowski. But he did not have a proper theory for that kind of theatre. I loved Grotowski’s work but I did not feel he had a theory about this kind of theatre. I mean he had a theory about staging and environmental theatre but he did not have a global theory about why this intimacy. He worked with deconstruction, spacing and so on…
The Natyashatra, the 6th chapter of the Natyashastra could do it for me. There are certain parts of the Natyashastra I have read once and I did never read again, some of the analysis of the drama …

AD: How the king should walk and move his hands and rise his eyebrows when he is upset but cannot show it because the queen is too close, for example? (laughing)

RS: (laughing too) But in the opening chapter, he writes about the horse sacrifice and the first performances of hundreds sons of Bharata, so that is narrative but later one these details that we really cannot figure out because he is giving names of movements but we do not know so we have names of the sculpting and so on.
The theory of the sixths chapters of the Natyashastra was extremely powerful because it could be applied in many different cultural context. So whoever who was writing that was writing very specifically about Ancient Indian Performance and it was obviously someone who knew about it.
So that is the real origin of Rasaesthetics and after that, from and throughout the 70s I was practicing and I was doing active training and working with on yoga, pranayama and vocal training and exercises I have learned in the West, along with pranayama, and exercises I had learn from Grotowski in 1967, all that together.
Then I do not remember, I have to get back to my notebooks but in 1992, I did the first Rasaboxes and I think that that came up. The boxes came because of Abhinavagupta. There are 8 rasas, but when you try to practice them, when you try to understand them like Artaud says that the artist is an athlete of the emotions, and then if you make a grid, you have 9 boxes. You do not have 8, but the 9th one is in the center and it is so obvious that it has to be shanta. That it has to be what Abhinavagupta added to the original 8 rasas.

AD: There is actually a book about it called The number of Rasa-s by Raghavan, who discusses the theory of the numbers of rasas.

RS: So the 9th did not come before Abhivanagupta, in the 10th century. He is Kashmiri, a kind of Bouddhist-Hindu, when the Buddhism and the Hinduism were very close. Anyway, by 93, I got to practice it and my artistic work, rather than my intellectual work purely, I only learned about the rasas about practicing them.

AD: But how did you come to the shape of a box?

RS: Well, first of all, technically, I should have called it bhavabox, but by the time I would be sure of that, I already have called them rasabox and also, they talked about rasas at the sixth chapter, and maybe if I do it again, I would do that, except they would be very hard to anyone to pronounce it: bahavabox, bh, right? So rasabox is better.
But they are really about bhavas, and I make the distinction between the emotions and the feelings. You know that? So emotions, the bhavas, are forever the inconscious, and the rasas are the expressions. The rasas are the feelings and not the emotions. We experience our feelings which are produced by our emotions, but we cannot access our emotions directly. Anymore than we cannot access our unconscious. We can access our dreams or our imagination, our feelings, but not our emotions.

AD: But when did you first write it?

RS: I try to reconstruct why I wrote this. I honestly cannot remember why, mostly may I say, I do write because somebody asks me to write something. For me, writing is both fun and agonizing and if you told me I could be famous and not have to write again I would simply do it right a way. But I need to write even if it is hard… Well probably I was giving a talk.
And I liked the sound of Rasaesthetics because you can use the a in English which is the last letter of rasa and the first of aesthetics, and the a in aesthetics is silent. In fact in alternative spelling in English we do not use the a anymore. But so I felt that Rasaesthetics worked. I think that probably I gave a talk, somewhere and then I wrote the talk down. But I was probably published in the mid 90s. Something like that.
And that also strucked me, the notion that 40% of our nerve cells, because lot of people have been writing about thinking from the belly, got all these things. But Gersian has proven that these are real because these are not metaphors but the vagus nerves is linked to the brain in a very unconscious level, and it is connected to the mid-brain. So we are getting all this stuff but we are only conscious of a little bit of it. When I fear, my heart beat changes and there is a lot of transformation in my nervous system but I felt that yoga and other meditations are a ways of training that system. That is what Gersian and I have found and he said he would be interested in more investigations but he said he cannot believe we could train nervous system.

AD: I believe we can.

RS: Of course we can! And we can see people training everyday in India. I also think that: once you have a nerve, it is a 2 ways stream system and you can always train it somehow. But then I also got involved with Demasio, the autor of The Feelings that Matter and there is a “feelings group” in Concordia University: ISRE, it is the International Society of Research on Emotions, and they have lots of papers on emotions and feelings.

AD: Did you mean to write a manual on a practice subject, what was your intention?

RS : Writing the article ?

AD: Yes…

RS: My intention was double. My intention was to theorize rasa in a way that westerners could understand it, and maybe in the east as well, because it has not been theorized that way. And to show that Rasaboxes was not just a casual thing for actors but a way of training the emotions, training the feelings to use them in performance but we could also use them outside a performance like all training it tends to. If I re-write it, I would probably objectify that which is not normally thought of an object. I would probably bring under conscious control that what is not under conscious control, or help prove somebody assertions that if you express a feeling you feel the feeling. If you express the physical aspects of a feeling, you can evolve the feeling. As I said: it is a two ways stream. For example, if I am sad, I would cry, but if I cry I would become sad: it is a circle. It works 2 ways, but in the West we are too enslaved to the other and we come to call it insincerity but it is not insincerity, it is just a method to change the way you feel.

AD: I had that other question, looking at your own practice of theatre from the Performance Group to the rasaboxes, you turn from a very much engaged performance theatre to a form where, somehow, you open your practice to people who are doing business.

RS: Correct, but the rasaboxes I have never done it with the performance group. I left the Performance Group in the 1980, so the rasabox is 12 years later…

AD: If we would be critical, we could say you are turning from something like “hardcore” in the performance to business. Is rasabox a business, after all?

RS: Well, it can be, of course. I mean, many people have done rasabox: Doctors have done it. I mean medical doctors because they are often confronted with extremely difficult emotional situation, right? If you have to tell someone you will probably die, or if you have to tell their loved ones that someone has died, or if you are constantly seeing people in stress, so you can’t just express your feelings, how can you learn to manage those feelings and express them and get them outside yourself after a certain point? So we have done this into medical schools too. And so it is useful when people want to have emotional skills. Let’s call it that way, so which of course, we have emotions authentically quote. It just happens, but it is like language.
Every child will learn language, if they have their ears but to really be a writer, to really be a speaker. You have to train that language skill beyond what you would just get in a classic thing. It is the same with emotional skills: we all have feelings, but we want to train them beyond the day where we train them.

AD: So what is interesting for you to do?

RS: Why do I want to do that? Because I guess I think my ideas about rasa, in Performance Studies, which is not just theatre, my feeling is about the people I live with and the people I train apply to all aspects of life. I am not interested in remaining a specialist. I am interested in taking a specialty: how it could be used.
Well, it’s like, let’s take an example, let’s take cooking, because I like to cook, tomorrow my son, my wife, his wife and I will go to the market, buy things and cook diner at their house. So it is a combination of ingredients and I think cooking is an art, is a science and is a pleasure. So it involves chemistry, sensuality and sociability.
So I think that theatre also is a model. It is a model of life. It is all about controlling them, expressing them and enjoying them. Where else can you enjoy sadness, fear or rage? Where else can you enjoy raudra, bhayanaka, karuna? We do avoid those and naturally go for sringara and bibhasta and hasya… so maybe vira, which is a strange one, we have to talk about it later. But in art we can enjoy those negative emotions. So that in a certain extend, sringara is a basic rasa. Everything should be approached from a sringaric point of view. Because of you live your life as raudra, you will be a very unhappy person. If everything you see is flavored with rage, even your love, but if everything you see is flavored with love even your rage, it will be better of. I cannot live that, I am not a saint, but I understand and I want to train myself in order to do that. So I think we can look at every situation and say: “what is the rasa thing going on?”
See this woman over there, she is playing with her smartphone and look at how is she seated: her hand is underneath her left thigh. So she is getting warmth in her thigh. And I love the idea that there is an all sringara going on there, from herself to herself. So I try to feel how these things and what they might be doing.
The ocean of our desire is so vast that anything we can add is just acquiring knowledge or pleasure will still be very small. So therefore I want to learn in experience as much as possible. I mean actually imagination is a form of adbutha, imagination is the marvelous and, you know, maybe adbutha should be another sringara …

AD: There is something else I wonder about your use of navarasa. I wonder if it is not very much influenced by your French studies. Because when you say “Western Theatre” is all about brain and vision and when you “Oriental Theatre” is all about belly-brain and digestive process. I wonder if it is not an ubuesque vision of Indian Theatre and if you are influenced by French Culture and your studies in France. At the end of your article you say that, theatre theoricians should consider more theatre as something a “secretive” … and there is something about “caca” and Artaud… etc…

Well, you know that I did my dissertation on Ioneseco … my first living in France, I lived on the rue Dauphine, right up on the pont Neuf and I spent my time at the bibliothèque. Et c’est vrai, je parle français and I can read it. If you try to put up all these ideas together and if you think of how Diderot and Descartes are kind of continuation of Aristotle and you think of a certain kind of exploration of immediacy and experience of being nothing and the absurdist… Artaud is crazy of course and so what? I do not know your question exactly…

AD: My question is about your own reading of Natyashastra and your story; and I think you can draw a map such this one: you have USA here, and India here, and you have France right in the middle. And you made a stop before you went to India and then, you are going back to the US…

RS: Right, but I think you should put the Greece too. I mean historically we should stop in Greece.

AK: Yes but in France, I think more or less everybody can consider he belongs to the Greek civilization, because it is the same culture

RS: Right…

AD: See, Chronos is absorbing his own sons… there is something about all this …

RS: You have to understand my experience with Asia is very deep. The same time I went to India, I went to all the Sub-Asian countries, and China and Japan and Corea are very important to me. Some of the greatest writing about theatre are from Zeami treatises, and he wrote treatises about No Drama, because all of the Asian aesthetics is there. But remember that Bouddha was a Hindu who reformed who reformed Hindouism to come Bouddhism, he carried it to China and Japan. In Japan they made Shinto and Zen, and I mean that area: China Corea Japan is like Europe.
There is a similarity through Bouddhism and how it marries local traditions in each place. There is something very distinct but you can find similarities between Kathakali and No Drama: In the structure of the narration, in the rigor of the training, in the belief that the body is essential. In Asia, I find the body as the primary means of knowledge but what Descartes did with the Cogito was split the body and mind, the body learns from the mind and we have to overcome that, what the body learns from the mind.
Artaud tried to put the body back in a primary theoretical instrument rather than the mind looking at the body so that when I got back in Asia, I felt that here in the philosophy, the use of the body is primary because, yoga is not simply a physical practice: it is a metaphysical practice.

AD: Isn’t it disturbing to be American and specialist of Indian theatre: is it post colonial or post-modernist ?

RS: Say that again? haha… yes, it is post-something ! You know… here is where my Jewish figures: I realize now the jewish community in America is powerful, but when it was my grand father’s day, right around here they were killing them or killing us. I cannot forget that, so I am colonial and colonized.
And I am teaching in a place where there is no synagogues, it is against the law… so it is complex for me and it is not one way or the other and I tend to be very post-modern in my very-post-colonial way …
But you know, where I teach, people die for this kind of ideas. And you see, this is why I love artists and actors especially: They are very fluid, actor’s would not go into these miserable profession, and they live with contradiction, it is ok.

AD: I also do believe that performing arts are more a question of time and space than a matter of socio-economic issues. This is how I understand the point you make in your article when you say: “it is time for theoricians to work with the perception that theatre is a matter of secrection”.

RS: and now think of the relationship of the word secretion and secret so secret mean that which is in and secretion means that we cannot hide, whose is out of us. So there is a paradox, right? Our secretions are the way our secrets are made manifest.

AD: And just help me to clear that point: I understand that the emotions and the way we express it is basically human but meanwhile, the basic emotions are used in labs to make robots, so can you imagine that the becoming of humanity is to be robotic ?

RS: The one thing we know about the future is that it is almost impossible to predict that future. What happens is something happens and somebody says we could predict it! Yes that is true because people predict everything, so one thing will be true, but many things they were predicting were not true. So sure, we can predict the future but we don’t know which of the prediction is the future, so we have not develop the genetics of the future the way we have children being born: We can look at the child and see what the gender is and this and that and we can do a genetic analysis but we are not going to do a genetic analysis about things like that.
It seems clear to me after having said that, that certainly, we are digitizing our lives more and more so I wouldn’t call it robotics I would call it digitalization. Because digitalization means to break down biology into bits of information and once we have biology as sequentialized like one and zero digitize then we can begin to manufacted beings that are light human beings or simulacrum of human beings but are not human beings. Except at the time that they begin to think and feel, and then it will be very difficult to tell.
I mean, science fiction has predicted this, again and again and I think, probably it is true. But I do not feel uncomfortable about it. You don’t feel uncomfortable sitting here in a sweater and a scarf. I don’t feel uncomfortable sitting like this. 5 thousand years ago we could not imagine any of this, but we are very adapted to it.

And to some degree, like I am right now with 2 implements in my heart, so where shall I stop ? We are able to replace things in the brain that cause Alzheimer or so, is that not them? what part of you is not you? So you have a little bit of this and that… Make up, powder, eye liner, I have this implement: so what part of this is not us? And what part is materially or culturally not us? Our specie is made everything I see here, I do not see anything here not made by our specie. Human is making nature. I do not see a single plot, so this is us too, so digitalization is just another useness of that which we made, which also makes us. That which me made also makes us.

AD: It goes back forth…

RS: It is a cycle, exactement ! Tu as raison !


Qu’est-ce qu’un geste fou ?

Posted: May 4th, 2014 | Author: A.D. | Filed under: ANTHROPOLOGIE — réflexions croisées sur un monde qui bouge, PERFORMANCE — théories et pratiques | No Comments »

Je me souviens de la première répétition. Je n’avais absolument aucune idée de par où commencer: Qu’est-ce qu’un geste fou ?

Quand on demande à un acteur de faire le fou, souvent il en fait trop. Faire le fou ressemble à une crise de décompensation psychotique.On demande à l’acteur d’entrer en scène en séance d’improvisation. Il entre en scène trop souvent, il se met à hurler. Il court dans tous les sens. C’est la rage.

Alors que faire le fou, c’est autre chose.

Être fou, ce n’est pas être en colère. Être fou, c’est avoir un système de communication qui soit imperceptible ou incompréhensible aux autres. Être fou, l’a montré Gregory Bateson, à travers son étude de la schizophrénie (1977), c’est s’être crée tout un monde. Un autre monde.

Être fou pour un acteur cela pourrait être c’est faire un geste avec répétition, difficulté ou engagement. Ce geste qui revient comme une espèce de petit tic… clic, clic, clic… tel une image clé de la folie.

Une petite machine de guerre, insérée dans la machine d’amour, dirait Deleuze. C’est l’antinomadisme. C’est la prison. La folie, c’est l’enfermement. C’est l’enfermement dans un système de représentation qui fait de soi quelque chose de diffracté. Une personne multiple. Une personne qui n’a plus de sens pour soi, dans les yeux des autres.

Celui émet des gestes fous articule un langage verbal diffracté. C’est de la disphrénie ou de la métaphrénie : au-delà tout ce que la “phrénie[1]” peut signifier. L’ensemble de la morphologie double de Jung n’existe plus.

Sur scène, on pourrait imaginer un geste archaïque qui prendrait possession du corps de l’acteur et sortirait de tout système de relation avec le corps des autres acteurs. « Pris » par le geste, comme une transe, l’acteur compose un chorégraphie d’une telle complexité qu’il n’est plus que lui même seul à comprendre. Il a crée son propre langage gestuel. Qui ne fait sens pour personne. Lui même a perdu le fil de sa logique.

Faire un geste fou oscille entre formuler un geste archaïque, tellement éloigné de toute humanité qu’il renvoie à l’animalité, sanctionné par la société des hommes qui cherchent depuis tout temps à se différencier du règne animal. Et formuler un geste hypercomplexe, composé, élaboré, pris dans une logique de communication exprimée de manière irrationnelle.

Faire un geste fou, c’est inciter l’autre à se sentir mal. C’est stimuler une émotion de mal aise chez qui le regarde. Car il renvoie à l’idée de « souillure » ou à l’incompréhension.

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[1] du grec phrên [-phrène, -phrénie] esprit ou relatif au diaphragme source